Since 1990 the Italian-Turkmen Archaeological Mission has been involved in numerous archaeological projects in Southern Turkmenistan– stratigraphic excavations, field survey, and the production of an archaeological map of the area, mainly concerning the study of urbanization on the alluvial fan of the River Murghab in the Bronze Age and Iron Age. This archaeological mission began as a joint research project between the Italian Institute for the Middle and Far East (IsMEO), the Turkmenistan State University (TGU) and the Institute of Archaeology of the USSR Academy of Sciences (IARAN). With regard to the archaeological and historical context, this region, known as Margiana in historical times, has often been mistakenly considered a marginal area, located between two great cultures: the Indus Valley to the east and Mesopotamia on the west. Here, the Italian-Turkmen Archaeological Mission has explored and investigated an area covering over 20,000 km2, leading to the registration of about 2000 sites ranging in date from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period. Recently the mission’s efforts have been concentrated on the site of Togolok 1, shedding light on the latest occupation phases of one of the most important and extensive settlements in the Murghab region in the Middle and Late Bronze Age (2450-1500 BC).