Since 1990 the Italian-Turkmen Archaeological Mission has beeninvolved in numerous archaeological projects in Southern Turkmenistan– stratigraphic excavations, fieldsurvey, and the production of an archaeological map of the area, mainly concerning the study of urbanization onthe alluvial fan of the River Murghabinthe Bronze Ageand Iron Age. This archaeological mission began as ajoint research project between the Italian Institute for theMiddle and Far East (IsMEO), the Turkmenistan State University (TGU) and the Institute of Archaeology of the USSR Academy of Sciences (IARAN). With regard to thearchaeological and historical context, this region, known asMargiana inhistorical times, has often been mistakenlyconsidereda marginal area, located between two great cultures: the Indus Valley to the eastand Mesopotamia on the west. Here, the Italian-Turkmen Archaeological Mission hasexplored and investigatedan area coveringover 20,000 km2, leading to the registration of about 2000 sites ranging in date from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period. Recently the mission’sefforts have been concentrated on the site of Togolok 1, sheddinglight on the latestoccupation phases of one of the most important and extensive settlements inthe Murghab region inthe Middle and Late Bronze Age (2450-1500 BC).